The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world’s second-largest country by area. Originally three provinces of British North America, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (which would become Ontario and Quebec) united to form the new nation. Since then, Canada’s external borders have changed several times, and has grown from four initial provinces to ten provinces and three territories as of 1999. Canada has ten provinces and three territories.
The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces are jurisdictions that receive their power and authority directly from the Constitution Act, 1867(formerly called the British North America Act, 1867), whereas territories derive their mandates and powers from the federal government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions, and each province has its own “Crown” represented by the lieutenant governor, whereas the territories are not sovereign, but simply parts of the federal realm, and have a commissioner.